By Thomas Birtchnell; William Hoyle;

ISBN-10: 1137365668

ISBN-13: 9781137365668

ISBN-10: 1349473812

ISBN-13: 9781349473816

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Econolyst (2012) ‘The 3D4D Challenge Explained’.  Wilcox (2012) ‘RepRap and the 3D4D Challenge’. org. org/partners/academia/. net. za. in/about. ro. com. com. com/2012/05/the-3d4d-challenge/. org/. org/. 0005 The 3D4D Challenge  Practical Action was formerly the Intermediate Technology Development Group, founded by the influential social economist, E. F. Schumacher, in 1965.  Kadushin (2013) ‘Bearina IUD Concept’.  Shaw (2012) ‘Bras and Guitars: What People Today are 3D Printing’. ’.  The Economist (2012b) ‘A Third-World Dimension’.

Printers should not have regular upgrade cycles and the interfaces should not assume literacy/numeracy standards. Designs would not require Computer Aided Design (CAD) or coding skills or the operation of complex 3D scanners for reverse engineering. Materials would not require special handling facilities or training. Fourth, to be firmly in the Goldilocks Zone, the 3DP ecosystem would require scalability. Scale requires a large user group for the printers. The crowdsourcing of designs drawing on many different experiences and material economies must provide enough information to satisfy demand.

Micro-Enterprise networks of 3DP kiosks. Product designs to address specific problems such as a low cost printable water filter that could be attached to the neck of a soda bottle or a process for printing customized glasses for wearers with asymmetrical faces, enabling correct alignment of corrective lenses. New approaches to construction using a catalogue of printable interlocking bricks that remove the need for other materials to hold the construction together. Education facilities to equip communities from childhood with the skills required to use 3DP technology for the benefit of their community.

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3D Printing for Development in the Global South: The 3D4D Challenge by Thomas Birtchnell; William Hoyle;


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