By Ulrich L. Lehner and Michael Printy (editors)
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Extra info for A Companion to the Catholic Enlightenment in Europe
102 They argued for a less ostentatious, more individualistic and more praxis-oriented piety, which is one of the reasons that they wanted to use the vernacular in the liturgy. ”103 The latter also gave rise to a new ideal of aesthetics that was independent of the Church. 2. 105 After the theological battles of the 17th century, especially the controversies on grace, 18th century mystical theology was a time of calm. 106 101 Heribert Raab, “Zur Geschichte der Herz-Jesu-Verehrung im Mittelrheingebiet während des 18.
Akademien und Hochschulen im 18. und beginnenden 19. Jahrhundert (Berlin: 1976), 1–84; Laetitia Boehm et al. ), Universitá, Accademie e Societá scientifiche in Italia e in Germania dal Cinquecento al Settecento (Bologna: 1981); Harald Dickerhoff, “Gelehrte Gesellschaften, Akademien, Ordensstudien und Universitäten,” Zeitschrift fur Bayerische Landesgeschichte 45 (1982): 37–66; Jürgen Voss, “Die Akademien als Organisationsträger der Wissenschaften im 18. , 1963); F. Hartmann and R. ), Der Akademiegedanke im 17.
174 Two different hierarchical groups were the supporters of the Catholic Enlightenment: the clergy and the laity. Not only in the Holy Roman Empire was the clergy much more diverse within Catholicism than in the Protestant Churches. The higher ranks of clergymen were (in most cases) reserved for the nobility who were often well educated. The lower ranks included some erudite priests, but many were uneducated. 175 One can find clergy of all ranks among the Enlighteners. Of particular importance for the spreading of the Catholic Enlightenment movement were, of course, bishops, university professors, and governmental employees.
A Companion to the Catholic Enlightenment in Europe by Ulrich L. Lehner and Michael Printy (editors)